A biosensor is an analytical device that utilizes biological components to detect target molecules. Although biosensor designs have become more sophisticated over the years, at the heart of every biosensor, it will always be constructed to have a recognition and transduction element. The recognition element can utilize proteins (enzyme, antibody), nucleic acid (oligonucleotides, aptamers, nucleic acid enzymes), whole cells or any other biomimetic molecules that interact with the molecule of interest. A transducer is a mechanism that translates this interaction into an electrical, optical, thermometric, signal.1 In recent years, biosensors have adopted a third element to generate an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. This amplification unit can take many forms but the end result is to increase detection sensitivities.
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